What is a Semi-Presidential Republic?

A Semi-Presidential Republic is committed to a democratic government system that governs the nation in a shared way between different positions of popular election, below we explain what this governmental model consists of.

What is Semi-Presidentialism?

Basically, semi-presidentialism consists in that the power exercised by the Head of State does not fall directly on a person, decisions at the governmental level are made by those who are responsible for carrying out the positions of higher legislative hierarchy.

In general, semi-presidential republics maintain the political figure of the Head of State in a President, who must legislate together with a Prime Minister and a Legislative Cabinet.

This model of government has democratic characteristics, where the people have the vote as a means of expression to elect the President of the Republic.

The legislative power or Parliament of the Republic, has among its functions to evaluate the political performance of the relevant positions, such as the President himself and the Prime Minister, as well as the positions of the Ministerial train, in order to ensure the correct procedure of public entities.

This type of form of government is known as the Mixed System, as it takes elements from the Presidential System and the Parliamentary Systems, to achieve a joint direction of the country.

Differences between a Semi-Presidential Republic and other government systems.

Nations have important differences in the way the government is constituted, below we present the most relevant points of each type of governmental system.

Presidential System

Presidential systems concentrate political power and government decision-making in the President of the Republic.

The president is authorized to appoint or make changes in the cabinet of ministers and in key positions in his government without requiring authorization from another authority.

For their part, the legislative and judicial powers are the only ones to balance decision-making so that they are in accordance with the constitution and the laws.

Parliamentary Systems

In this type of government, the President is a symbolic figure, since he does not have executive powers. Unlike the Prime Minister, who is responsible for matters of State.

The Parliamentary System is common in republics that established a monarchy governed by a single monarch, which evolves over time and becomes a parliamentary monarchy, where parliament is a very important entity, with true decision-making power.

Types of Semi-Presidentialism

There are two ways to implement the semi-presidential system, the first one is the premier-presidential system and secondly we have the form that is called the president-parliamentarian.

Premier-Presidential System

It is a system where the Prime Minister and his government cabinet are accountable to parliament. The president does not have the function of removing any of these positions, only the parliament can remove them.

The President has the mechanism of dissolution of the assembly, which obliges the Prime Minister and the cabinet to resign from their position.

The countries that currently have this Government System are Armenia, Cape Verde, East Timor, France, Lithuania, Mali, Mongolia, Niger, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Ukraine, among others.

President-Parliamentary System

The President of the Republic is elected by popular vote, he can choose the Prime Minister and the Government Cabinet, although a Parliamentary majority is needed for his election.

Both entities (Prime Minister and the Cabinet) of the Government System are responsible to Parliament and also to the President himself, which means a double possibility of evaluation and dismissal.

This model of government shares many similarities with Presidentialism, to remove a Prime Minister from power the president can promote a motion of no confidence. It is currently used in Mozambique, Namibia, Russia, Senegal, and Taiwan. Learn more about this interesting topic on our blog.

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